A typical LCD consists of polarizers, glass substrate with electrodes & liquid crystal fluid.A layer of liquid crystal is sandwiched by two alignment layers, the front layer & rear layer. Each of the layers will align the liquid crystal molecules to one direction, the alignment directions of the front layer & rear layer is with an angle, so that a helical structure of liquid crystal is formed.Next to the alignment layer is the electrode layer, the front and rear electrodes can form an electric field in order to switch the LCD on & off.When the electric field exists, the helical structure of the liquid crystal is distorted, all the liquid crystal molecules will align to the electric field, this is an "on". When the electric field is removed, the helical structure is restored, this is an "off".The electrodes are transparent layers made of a material called Indium tin oxide(ITO).The electrodes are etched to patterns so that to display beautiful digits, icons & graphics.Polarizers are attached on the outer surfaces of the glass substrates.
With a suitable arrangement of the polarizing axis of polarizers, a light switch is formed. That is the basic theory of LCD.
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